Computers have been programmed to use machine learning, which is designed with digital circuits. These circuits perform complex arithmetic equations involving basic operations like binary addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. For every arithmetic operation, logic gates are designed based on truth tables. These truth tables perform simple algorithms and also complex operations. The binary division is one of the fundamental arithmetic operations to be performed by logic gates. The … [Read more...]

## What is Binary Subtraction : Truth Table & Rules of Subtraction

All the digital arithmetic circuits are designed by using logic gates where these gates are designed to perform binary addition and subtraction. In this article, we will see the basics of binary subtraction, which is one of the fundamental tasks to be performed by any microprocessor/microcontroller. These gates which perform subtraction are designed based on simple rules, which perform the logic operations. These rules follow a simple truth table, which is similar to traditional arithmetic … [Read more...]

## What is a Binary Addition : Truth Table & Rules of Addition

With the advent of electronics and computers learning binary numbering systems and operations with operation numbers have gained a lot of importance. Since all the computer operations work on a binary system, it has become important to know how arithmetic calculations are performed on binary numbers. These operations must be in line with the traditional arithmetic rules of performing basic math functions on numbers. This article discusses binary addition, which is one of the fundamental … [Read more...]

## What is the Karnaugh Map : Rules & Its Examples

In digital electronics, simplifying Boolean expressions of many digital circuits is very difficult and consumes more time. So, to reduce the complexity of simplifying Boolean expressions, a method called Karnaugh Map is used. It was introduced by Maurice Karnaugh, a telecommunication engineer at Bell Labs in 1953. The Boolean expressions with 2, 3, 4, and 5 variables can be minimized using the karnaugh map without using any Boolean algebra. It reduces the components or logic gates and inputs … [Read more...]

## What is a Latch : Different Types and Their Applications

The digital circuits made of logic gates as the basic devices. This leads to the formation of combination circuits and sequential circuits. The circuit design must have a memory element present in it. This element stores the data required for processing the code and the stored information is needed for the program during computing. The memories are treated as the key components in digital electronics. These storage devices are termed as a latch. Individual logic gates don't have any capability … [Read more...]

## Sum of Products and Product of Sums : Types and Schematic Diagrams

We are all more familiar with the terms SUM and PRODUCT in mathematics. Based on these terms, AND and OR logical operations are derived. Any kind of logical expression can be represented through these terms and there are many ways of expressing a logical function. AND represents the product relationship between the terms whereas OR represents sum relationship. So, Sum of Products and Product of Sums are the equivalent approaches of representing a logical expression. Through few principles, these … [Read more...]

## Basic and All-inclusive concepts in Boolean Algebra

Initially, we are only with the propositions of true and false and these bivalent values introduced four laws of logic. But in many of the situations, there might be a need of more than these two values, in that case, the bivalent solution fits in. This bivalent approach is proposed by Aristotle. Making modifications to his approach George Boole founded Boolean Algebra which categorized multiple laws of relationship those are in between mathematical quantities constrained to one of two values: 1 … [Read more...]

## What are Latches? and How they Differ from Flip-Flop?

In Digital Electronics, transmission and the storage of the data is the wide part of the computation. In both digital and informational technology sector data needs to be stored in the memory may be internal as in microcontroller or external as in micropocessors. To store the information in terms of bits the Latches and Flip-Flops are used. These are the basic storage elements that store binary values that are 0 and 1. Flip-Flop circuit is derived from the latch. Both elements belong to the … [Read more...]

## Logic Gate : Working principle, Types, and Uses

In this digital world of electronics, the information is stored in the form of bits (Binary). Certain arithmetical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are to be performed on these bits. The combination of 'Arithmetic Operation' with certain 'logic' using binary numbers was established by Leibniz. Further, the electrical circuits of switching based on vacuum tubes were designed. The invention of relays replaced the 'vacuum tubes' in switching circuits. Finally, … [Read more...]