The acronym of the term Op-Amp is an operational amplifier and it is a one type solid state integrated circuit. In the year 1963 the first op-amp is manufactured by “Fairchild Semiconductors”. The op-amp is the basic building blocks of analog electronic circuits that perform a various types of analog signal processing tasks. Operational amplifiers use external feedback to control its functions and these are the multipurpose devices in all electronic devices. Op-Amp has two inputs and one output termed as inverting and noninverting. IC 741 op amp is the most common op-amp used in various electronic circuits. The main function of an op-amp is to amplify AC and DC signals and also for mathematical operations like addition, multiplication, subtraction, etc. These op-amps are used in many applications like oscillators, comparators, filters, pulse generators and in various electronic circuits.
IC 741 Operational Amplifier
The 741 IC op-amp looks like a chip and it is a general purpose op amp. The 741IC op amp diagram is shown below that consists of 8 pins. The most important pins are pin-2, pin-3 and pin-6 because pin 2 and 3 represent inverting and non-inverting terminals where pin6 represents voltage out. The triangular diagram in the op-amp represents an Op-Amp integrated circuit. The modern version of the IC is represented by the famous 741 op-amp. Op-amp is mainly used to perform mathematical operations in various electronic circuits.It is the common feature of analog electronics. 741 IC is built from various transistor stages which commonly contain a differential i/p stage, a push-pull o/p stage and an intermediate gain stage. The differential op-amps comprises of a matched pair of FETs or bipolar junction transistors.
IC 741 Op-Amp Pin Description
The pin diagram of the IC 741 op amp is shown below. It consists of 8 pins where each pin having some functionality which is discussed in the following.
Pin configuration of IC 741 op amp is shown above
- Pin 1 is Offset null.
- Pin 2 is Inverting input terminal.
- Pin 3 is a non-inverting input terminal.
- Pin 4 is negative voltage supply (VCC)
- Pin 5 is offset null.
- Pin 6 is the output voltage.
- Pin 7 is positive voltage supply (+VCC)
- Pin 8 has no connection.
The 741 op-amp is used in two ways such as an inverting and a noninverting
An Inverting Amplifier
In an 741 op amp IC pin2 is the input pin and pin6 is the output pin. When the voltage is applied through the pin2 then the output comes from the output pin 6. If the polarity is positive at the input pin2, then the polarity which comes from the output pin6 is negative. So the output is always reverse to the input.
The basic circuit of an inverting amplifier is shown and the gain of this circuit is simply calculated by the following formula
For instance, if Rf is 1000 kilo ohm and R1 is 100 kilo ohm then the gain would be
If the i/p voltage is 1.5v the o/p voltage would be
Non Inverting Amplifier
In an op-amp 741 IC pin3 is the i/p pin and pin6 is the o/p pin. When the voltage is applied through the pin3 then the output comes from the output pin 6. If the polarity is positive at the input pin3, then the polarity which comes from the output pin6 is also positive. So the output is not inverted.
The basic circuit of noninverting amplifier is shown and the gain of this circuit is simply calculated by the following formula
For instance, if Rf is 50 kilo ohm and R1 is 10 kilo ohm then the gain would be 1+ (50/10) =1+5=6
If the i/p voltage is 1 the o/p voltage would be
IC 741 Op Amp Circuit Diagram
There are various application circuits using IC 741 operational amplifier such as adder, subtractor, comparator, voltage follower, differentiator and Integrator.The circuit representation of 741IC is shown below, in this circuit 741 op-amp is used as a comparator not an amplifier Even if used as a comparator the op-amp still notices weak signals so that they can be recognized more easily.
Specifications of IC 741 Op-Amp
The specifications of IC 741 op-amp is i/p offset voltage and current, i/p Bias Current, Differential i/p Resistance, i/p Capacitance, Offset Voltage Adjustment Range, i/p Voltage Range, CMRR (Common Mode Rejection Ratio), SVRR (Supply Voltage Rejection Ratio), Consumption of power, Transient Response and Slew Rate (SR)
Characteristics of IC 741 Op-Amp
The Input impedance is more than 100kilo-ohms.
- Output is low less than 100 ohms.
- The frequency range of amplifier signals is from 0Hz- 1MHz.
- Low offset voltage and current.
- Voltage gain is about 2,00,000.
IC 741 Op-Amp Applications
There are many circuits are designed by using IC 741 op-amp. They are, active filter, converting current to voltage, converting voltage to current, A/D converter, Voltage follower, summing amplifier, sample & hold circuit, etc.
- IC 741 Op-Amp based variable audio frequency oscillator
- Adjustable Ripple Regulated Power Supply using IC 741 Op-Amp
- IC 741 Op-Amp based 4-channel audio mixture
- IC 741 Op-Amp based automatic light operated switch using a light dependent resistor
- IC 741 Op-Amp based DC volt polarity indicator
- IC 741 Op-Amp based e-room thermometer
- IC 741 Op-Amp based Bug Listening
- IC 741 Op-Amp based Microphone Amplifier
- IC 741 Op-Amp Tester
- Short Circuit Protected RPS using IC 741 Op-Amp
- IC 741 Op-Amp based Thermal Touch Switch
- Voltage to Frequency Conversion using IC 741 Op-Amp
- Generating of Wind Sound using IC 741 Op-Amp
Please refer to this link to know more about Op Amp Integrator.
This is all about IC 741 op amp tutorial which includes pin configuration, circuit diagram of an op-amp, applications, specifications, characteristics and its applications. Furthermore any queries regarding the article, please give your feedback by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you. What is the advantage of hybrid IC?