Square wave can be defined as a non sinusoidal periodic waveform that can be represented as an infinite summation of sinusoidal waves. It has an amplitude alternate at a regular frequency between fixed minimum and maximum value with the same duration. Square wave generator are generally used in electronics and in signal processing. The square wave is the special case of rectangular wave. The square wave generator is just like a Schmit trigger circuit in which the reference voltage for the comparator depends on the output voltage. It is also said to be astable multivibrator. [Read more…]
In digital electronic projects, the encoder and decoder play an important role. It is used to convert the data from one form to another form. Generally, these are frequently used in the communication systems like telecommunication, networking, and transfer the data from one end to the other end. In the same way it is also used in the digital domain for easy transmission of data, placed with the codes and then transmitted. At the end of the receiver, the coded data are collected from the code and then processed to display.This article discusses about what is encoder and encoder, working and its applications.
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The term SPWM stands for “Sinusoidal pulse width modulation” is a technique of pulse width modulation used in inverters. An inverter generates an output of AC voltage from an input of DC with the help of switching circuits to reproduce a sine wave by generating one or more square pulses of voltage per half cycle. If the size of the pulses is adjusted, the output is said to be pulse width modulated. With this modulation, some pulses are produced per half cycle. The pulses close to the ends of the half cycle are constantly narrower than the pulses close to the center of the half cycle such that the pulse widths are comparative to the equivalent amplitude of a sine wave at that part of the cycle. To change the efficient output voltage, the widths of all pulses are amplified or reduced while keeping the sinusoidal proportionality. With PWM (pulse width modulation), only the on-time of the pulses are changed during the amplitudes.
Advancements in Intelligent Instrumentation and Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) / Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) have made the process-control solutions in many of the industries to be easily managed and operated by utilizing the benefits of a SCADA system. SCADA is popular in several applications like process industries, oil and gas, electric power generation, distribution and utilities, water and waste control, agriculture/irrigation, manufacturing, transportation systems, and so on. Let us know about the SCADA system‘s working principle in brief from this article. [Read more…]
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The term IGBT is a short form of insulated gate bipolar transistor, it is a three-terminal semiconductor device with huge bipolar current-carrying capability. Many designers think that IGBT has a CMOS i/p and bipolar o/p characteristic voltage controlled bipolar device. So, this device is designed to make use of the benefits of both BJT and MOSFET devices in the form of monolithic. It combines the best qualities of both to attain the characteristics of an optimal device. [Read more…]
Majority of street lights, outdoor lights, and a number of indoor home appliances are typically operated and maintained manually in many occasions. This is not only risky, however additionally it leads to wastage of power with the negligence of personnel or uncommon circumstances in controlling these electrical appliances ON and OFF. Hence, we can utilize the light sensor circuit for automatic switch OFF the loads based on daylight’s intensity by employing a light sensor. This article discusses in brief about what is a light dependent resistor, how to make a light dependent resistor circuit and its applications. [Read more…]
The switch is an electrical device that is used to break or make an electrical circuit manually or automatically. The working principle of switch depends on ON/ OFF mechanism. Various electrical or electronic circuits use switches to control or trigger the owl circuit. The types of switches depend on the connections of the circuit they make. Two essential components such as pole and through can confirm what types of connections a switch can make. These two components are also used to define variations of switch contact. [Read more…]
Both p-n-p and the n-p-n transistors are the basic transistors which come under the category of bipolar junction transistors. These are used in the various amplifications circuits and the modulating circuits. The most frequent one among its applications is it’s fully ON and the OFF operating mode which is referred to as switch.
NPN and PNP transistors are bipolar junction transistors, and it is a basic electrical and electronic component which is used to build many electrical and electronic projects. The operation of these transistors involves both electrons and holes. The PNP and NPN transistors allow current amplification. These transistors are used as switches, amplifiers or oscillators. Bipolar junction transistors can be found either as large numbers as parts of integrated circuits or in discrete components. In PNP transistors, majority charge carriers are holes, whereas in NPN transistors, electrons are the majority charge carriers. But, field effect transistors have only one type of charge carrier.
The formation of these transistors is based on the diodes with the junction p-n. As in the n-p-n transistors n-types are in majority therefore there includes excess amount of electrons as the charge carriers. In p-n-p transistors there are two p-types in it resulting in the majority charge carriers as holes.
The main difference between the NPN and PNP transistor is, an NPN transistor turns on when the current flows through the base of the transistor. In this type of transistor, the current flows from the collector (C) to the emitter (E). A PNP transistor turns ON, when there is no current at the base of the transistor. In this transistor, the current flows from the emitter (E) to the collector (C).Thus, knowing this, a PNP transistor turns ON by a low signal (ground), where NPN transistor turns ON by a high signal (current).
Difference between NPN and PNP Transistors and their Making
The PNP transistor is a bipolar junction transistor; In a PNP transistor, the first letter P indicates the polarity of the voltage required for the emitter; the second letter N indicates the polarity of the base. The working of PNP transistor is the exact opposite to the NPN transistor. In this type of transistor, the majority charge carriers are holes. Basically, this transistor works the same as the NPN transistor. The materials which are used to construct the emitter, base and collector terminals in the PNP transistor are different from those used in the NPN transistor. The PNP transistor bias setup is shown in the below figure. The base-collector terminals of the PNP transistor are always reversed biased, then the negative voltage must be used for the collector. Therefore, the base terminal of the PNP transistor must be negative with respect to the emitter terminal, and the collector must be negative than the base.
Making of PNP Transistor
The PNP transistor configuration is shown below. The characteristics of both PNP and NPN transistors are similar except that the biasing of the voltage and current directions are reversed for any one of the possible three configurations such as a common base(CB), common emitter(CE) and common collector(CC).The voltage between the base and emitter terminal VBE is negative at the base terminal and positive at the emitter terminal because for a PNP transistor, the base terminal always biased negative with respect to the emitter. Also, the emitter voltage is positive with respect to the collector (VCE).
The voltage sources are connected to a PNP transistor, which is shown in the figure. The emitter is connected to the Vcc with the RL; this resistor limits the max current flowing through the device, which is connected to the collector terminal. The base voltage VB is connected to the base resistor RB, which is biased negative with respect to the emitter. To cause the base current to flow during a PNP transistor, the base terminal must be more negative than the base terminal by approx. 0.7volts or a Si device.
The fundamental difference between a PNP and a PN transistor is the proper biasing of the transistor junctions; the current directions and the voltage polarities are always opposite to each other.
Basics of P-N-P
The p-n-p transistors are formed with n-type present in between the p-types. The majority of the carriers those are responsible for the generation of the current are in this transistor are holes. The working operation is similar to that of n-p-n. But the applications of the voltages or currents in terms of polarity are different.
The NPN transistor is a bipolar junction transistor, In an NPN transistor, the first letter N indicates a negatively charged layer of material and a P indicates a positively charged layer. These transistors have a positive layer, which is located in-between two negative layers. NPN transistors are generally used in circuits for switching, amplifying the electrical signals that pass through them. These transistors comprise three terminals namely, base, collector and emitter and these terminals connect the transistor to the circuit board. When the current flows through the NPN transistor, the transistor base terminal receives the electrical signal, the collector makes a stronger electric current than the one passing through the base, and the emitter passes this stronger current on to the rest of the circuit. In this transistor, the current flows through the collector terminal to the emitter.
Generally, this transistor is used because it is so easy to produce. For an NPN transistor to work properly, it needs to be formed from a semiconductor material, which carries some electric current, but not the maximum amount as very conductive materials like metal. “Si” is one of the most commonly used semiconductor, and NPN transistors are the easiest transistors to make out of silicon. The application of an NPN transistor is on a computer circuit board. Computers need all their information to be translated into binary code, and this process is accomplished through a plethora of small switches flipping on and off on the computers circuit boards. NPN transistors can be used for these switches. A powerful electric signal turns the switch on, whereas a lack of a signal turns the switch off.
Making of NPN Transistor
The construction of an NPN transistor is shown below. The voltage at the base terminal is positive and negative at the emitter terminal because of an NPN transistor. The base terminal is always positive with respect to the emitter terminal, and also collector supply voltage is positive with respect to the emitter terminal. In NPN transistor, the collector is connected to the VCC through the load resistor RL. This load resistor limits the current flowing through the maximum base current. In this transistor, the movement of electrons through the base terminal that constitutes transistor action. The main feature of the transistor action is the link between the input and output circuits. Because, the transistor amplifying properties come from the consequent control that the base employs upon the collector to emitter current.
The transistor is a current operated device. When the transistor is switched on, the large current IC flows between the collector and emitter within the transistor. However, this only happens when a small biasing current Ib flows through the base terminal of the transistor. It is a bipolar NPN transistor; the current is the ratio of these two currents (Ic/Ib), called the DC current gain of the device and it is denoted with the symbol “hfe” or nowadays beta. The value of beta can be large up to 200 for standard transistors, and it is this ratio between Ic and Ib, which makes the transistor a useful amplifier. When this transistor is used in an active region, then Ib provides the input and Ic provides the output. Beta has no units as it is a ratio.
The current gain of the transistor from the collector to the emitter is called alpha that is, Ic/Ie, and it is a function of the transistor itself. As the emitter current Ie is the sum of a small base current and large collector current, the value of the alpha is very close to unity, and for a typical low power signal transistor this value ranges from about 0.950 to 0.999.
Difference Between NPN and PNP Transistor:
Bipolar Junction transistors are three terminal device and these are made of doped materials, often used in amplifying and switching applications. In essence, there are a couple of PN junction diodes in every BJT. When the pair of diodes joined then it forms a sandwich that places a type of semiconductor in between the same two types. Therefore, there are only two types of bipolar sandwich, which are namely PNP and NPN. In semiconductors, the NPN’s has characteristically higher electron mobility compared to the hole mobility. Therefore, it permits a large amount of current and operates very fast. And also, the making of this transistor is easy from silicon.
- Both PNP and NPN transistors are composed of different materials and current flow of these transistors is also dissimilar.
- In an NPN transistor, the current flows from the collector (C) to the Emitter (E), whereas in a PNP transistor, the current flows from the emitter to the collector.
- PNP transistors are made up of two layers of P material with a sandwiched layer of N The NPN transistors are made up of two layers of N material and sandwiched with one layer of P material.
- In an NPN transistor, a positive voltage is given to the collector terminal to produce a current flow from the collector to For PNP transistor, a positive voltage is given to the emitter terminal to produce current flow from the emitter to collector.
- The working principle of an NPN transistor is such that when you increase current to the base terminal, then the transistor turns ON and it conducts fully from the collector to emitter. When you decrease the current to the base terminal, the transistor turns ON less and until the current is so low, the transistor no longer conducts across the collector to emitter, and shuts OFF.
- The working principle of a PNP transistor is such that when the current exists at the base terminal of the transistor, then the transistor shuts OFF. When there is not current at the base terminal of the PNP transistor, then the transistor turns ON.
This is all about difference between NPN and PNP transistors which are used to build many electrical and electronic projects. Furthermore, any queries regarding this topic or electrical and electronics projects you can give your feedback by commenting in the comment section below.
Comparison in between N-P-N and P-N-P Transistor
1). In this the majority of n-types are present.
1). In this the majority of p-type materials are present.
2). The majority of the concentrations of the carriers are electrons.
2). The majority of the concentrations of the carriers in this type of transistors are holes.
3). In this if the terminal base is supplied with the increased amounts of current then the transistor gets switch to ON mode.
3). In this case for the low values of the currents the transistor is ON. Otherwise for high values of currents transistors it is OFF.
4). The symbolic representation of n-p-n transistor is
4). The symbolic representation of p-n-p transistor is
5). In the n-p-n transistor the flow of current is evident from the collector to the emitter terminals.
5). In the p-n-p transistor the flow of current can be seen from the terminals of the emitter to the collector.
6). In this transistor the arrow is pointing out.
6). In this transistor the indication of arrow is always pointing in.
The arrows in the transistors both n-p-n and p-n-p shows the main differences between the transistors. The arrow in n-p-n is pointed towards the emitter whereas for p-n-p the arrow is in the reverse direction. In both the cases the arrow indicates the direction of the flow of current.
Hence the construction of n-p-n and the p-n-p is simple. The operating will be same but its polarities of biasing differ. Now after discussing regarding the basics of n-p-n and the p-n-p can you tell which one is preferred during amplification and why?